Woe unto you, Rabbi Eckstein! For ye devour Born Again Christians pocketbooks and wallets, and for a pretence [outwardly, good friends] make them believe they’re fulfilling the Great Commission of Christ without speaking the name Jesus to the Jews: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.
||Just who is this Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein and what is his relationship to Born Again Christians?
||Rabbi Yechiel Z. Eckstein is an Orthodox Jewish Rabbi whose relationship to Born Again Christians is moolah (money) while hindering them in fulfilling the Great Commission in the lives of the Jewish people.
Rabbi Yechiel Z. Eckstein is an Orthodox Jewish Rabbi whose relationship to Born Again
Christians is moolah (money) while hindering them in fulfilling the Great Commission in
the lives of the Jewish people.
Rabbi Yechiel Z. Eckstein founded the International Fellowship of Christians and Jews (IFCJ) in 1983, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. Rabbi Eckstein’s IFCJ is propped up as a “bridge-building” organization that his web site describes as being committed to promoting greater understanding and tolerance between Christians and Jews and broadening support and cooperation for Israel and other shared concerns. IFCJ’s web site claims Rabbi Eckstein to be “the world’s leading Jewish authority on Evangelical Christians.”
Rabbi Eckstein And The Jewish Talmud
The Talmud is the authoritative body of Jewish law and tradition developed on the basis of the Scriptural law after the closing of the Pentateuch. The Pentateuch is the first five books of the Old Testament recorded by Moses. The purpose of the Oral Law, later written down and became known as the Talmud, is to explain the written law of Moses by means of numerous commentaries on how to interpret the Oral Law. Dear Born Again Christians, Orthodox Jewish Rabbi Yechiel Z. Eckstein eats and sleeps the Talmud. It’s his life and he walks in its teachings. He said himself,
Once your belly is full of the Talmud, you can work with other faiths. (“Turning To The Gentiles” by Aryeh Dean Cohen, The Jerusalem Post International Edition, Week ending January 24, 1998.)
When you are an Orthodox Jewish Rabbi with a belly-full of the Talmud, here are some of the beliefs you walk in:
…be more careful in [the observance] the words of the Scribes [in the Talmud] than in the words of the Torah [God’s Law/Word], for in the laws of the Torah there are positive and negative precepts; but, as to the laws of the Scribes, whoever transgresses any of the enactment of the Scribes incurs the penalty of death (Erubin 21b).
Jesus taught us to obey God rather than what man says, and the Talmudic interpretations and traditions are precisely that – man speaking. The so-called interpretations of God’s Law has been handed down and a great many of those interpretations that the dear Jewish people adhere to are nothing like the God we read about in the Bible. Yet, Rabbi Eckstein is to observe the Scribes’ words above God’s Word/Law. Let’s look at more examples of what’s in the Talmud.
On the eve of the Passover Yeshu [Jesus] was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried. ‘He is going forth to be stoned because he [Jesus] has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostacy’ (Sanhedrin 43a).
Jesus practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy! Please, that’s not God and you know it. There are other teachings on Jesus and his mother such as her being a whore; and Jesus is in hell being boiled in hot excrement. Please! The Talmud even makes it okay to not pay a Gentile (Cuthean) the wages owed him for work; Jews may use lies (tricks) to outwit Gentiles. Saints, and it is all okay according to the Talmud, that which is in Rabbi Eckstein’s belly – the man you are yoked with – partnered with.
A man is bound to say the following three blessings daily: ‘[Blessed art thou…] who hast not made me a heathen [Gentiles/non-believers/YOU]; …who hast not made me a woman; and ‘…who hast not made me a brutish man.’ (Menahoth 43b-44a).
That’s the Talmud speaking – that which is in Rabbi Eckstein’s belly.
Rabbi Eckstein quit a Talmud study group back in 1992 or ’93 after the study group asked him to leave because he broke the law by teaching Torah – God’s Word to non-Jews (“YOU”). Eckstein says he doesn’t teach, but he corrects wrong impressions. Just think about that, will you. It was quite an issue and thus ended up in a rabbinic court and in a split decision. Rabbi Eckstein said It was a very painful period in my life (“Theology Be Damned” by Netty C. Gross. The Jerusalem Report.Com, January 11, 2001). Saints, the Torah, God’s Word, how is that a sin when shared with others to bring them to know the True God of all creation?
A heathen [Gentile/non-believer/you] who studies the Torah [God’s Word/Law/The Bible] deserves death, for it is written; Moses commanded us a law for an inheritance; it is our inheritance, not theirs (Sanhedrin 59a).
Dear Saints of God, if you can’t see that Eckstein is not for you but is against you, you are truly blind. If you can’t see that he is very cleverly using you to get your money and keep you from proselytizing Jews because of his ingrained beliefs toward your kind, you are truly, truly blind. How much clearer can the picture get?
…What is meant by the Scriptural text, ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh?’ ‘This teaches that Adam had intercourse with every beast and animal but found no satisfaction until he cohabited with Eve’ (Nashim).
Born Again Christians, this is the Talmud that is in Eckstein’s belly – this is what he was equipped with before establishing a relationship with your money. Ask yourself, how can this man interpret Jesus’ Great Commission? You are unequally yoked with Rabbi Eckstein!
He’s Ashamed Of You
Born Again Christians, Rabbi Eckstein is beyond doubt ashamed of you. He is ashamed of you! The last paragraph of Netty C. Gross’ “Theology Be Damned” proves that the Rabbi is ashamed of you:
I bumped into Eckstein, who recently bought an apartment in Jerusalem, on a Friday afternoon as his film crew pulled up….Apparently one of Eckstein’s Christian companions had a religious outburst and began praising Jesus in Gilo. Cringing, Eckstein asked if I’d spoken to the man. I said I hadn’t. ‘Thank God,’ he muttered, relieved.
||Why was Rabbi Eckstein fearful and then relieved that the reporter had not spoken to the Christian companion?
||Clear and simple: Rabbi Eckstein was ashamed of the Christian companion and his Jesus-talk. He did not want to be associated with Jesus coming from the lips of a Christian. He’s ashamed of you and what you stand for. He despises Christianity. It’s in his belly remember.
Since the birth of International Fellowship of Christians and Jews, Rabbi Yechiel Z. Eckstein knew in his heart that the way for him to become influential in the Jewish world was by raising money. By him raising lots of money he would be accepted by Jews world-wide; and not only would they accept him but his organization would be received as a reputable agency for Jewish causes. If that were not the case, the Jerusalem Report.Com’s January 11, 2001 article would not agree with that statement. The article read:
Now Eckstein is demanding ‘acceptance and acknowledgment’ from the Jewish world. This year he started playing hardball, bypassing the UJC [United Jewish Communities] and the Jewish Agency, and donating money to Israel instead via Karen Hayesod, an agency affiliate that raises money for Israel everywhere but in the U.S., and the American Joint Distribution Committee….He was also asked to join the JDC board. In November , he delivered his maiden address at the GA [General Assembly], where he received an award from the UJC.
Born Again Christians, why is this man using your money to play hardball with Jewish agencies? You must ask yourself, what’s in it for him? When an organization is sincerely out to help any people, there is no time for games. There are always ulterior motives when people play games. Eckstein’s hidden motives have to do with acceptance and recognition as a legitimate Jewish agency, and for 20-plus years he has used Born Again Christians to achieve his hidden agenda.
Your Money Is In A Bag With Holes In It
If the work of Rabbi Eckstein is genuinely for the people he says it’s for, what does it matter if the rest of the Jewish world doesn’t see IFCJ as a bonafide Jewish agency? It matters to Eckstein – but why? The why is Rabbi Eckstein’s agenda – take from the Christians to give to the Jewish causes and make self a household name amongst Jewish agencies.
No one has better defined Eckstein’s work than Abraham Foxman of ADL:
Eckstein is selling the dignity of the Jewish people and the state of Israel by pandering to Christians for money….We have a modern state with extensive social services. And we’re not a poor people. What he’s doing is perverse. And for the Jewish and Israeli leadership to accept his money is also perverse. (“Theology Be Damned” by Netty C. Gross. The Jerusalem Report.Com, January 11, 2001).
“Right-on,” Mr. Foxman! Eckstein’s exploitation of Born Again Christians is not only perverse as having deviated from what is the right thing to do with regard to supporting the Jewish causes; but it is perverse in that he is exploiting Born Again Christians while manipulating Scriptures to dig deep into their pocketbooks and wallets. What Eckstein is doing is contrary to what the Jewish world has done for as long as they have existed – aid one another from within the Jewish clan because they have more than enough to do just that. Buttttttttt, the man (Eckstein) wanted “to be somebody” so by launching IFCJ, he would be accepted – he would be recognized.
Dear brothers and sisters in The Lord, by giving money to Rabbi Eckstein and his organization, you are “putting your money into a bag with holes.” In others words, you reap no blessing from this. You have been duped. You have digested the sugarcoated words of Rabbi Eckstein, an Orthodox Jew, who deep in his spirit, according to the Talmud, thinks very little of you. To him, it’s okay to make a fool of you and get your money to support Jewish causes. Folks, it’s about money, and God is not handing out blessings to the Rabbi’s trickery. There is no blessing derived from supporting IFCJ. When the mostly Orthodox Jews receive the money from Eckstein, since it’s coming from goyim, they don’t want it known that they receive it. That’s pride, arrogance, and I’m going to say, “hatred.” That’s ungodly and you know that your gift means nothing. It’s causeless – no blessing attached to it.
The Jews Don’t Need Your Money, They Need Jesus
Like Abraham Foxman said, the Jewish people have a modern state (Israel) that has extensive social services, and they do. After all, Israel is a developed democratic country with high-tech billionaires and a per capita GDP of over $17,000 (“Theology Be Damned” by Netty C. Gross. The Jerusalem Report.Com, January 11, 2001), and is more than able to care for its own. Israel, with the steady stream of financial support from worldwide Jewry, without the aid of Rabbi Eckstein, brought Jews out of Russia and Ethiopia and had absorption centers waiting for them. Israel provided for these people with food, clothing, Hebrew language instructions, jobs, etc. For Eckstein to say that they need the help of Christians – Christians who can’t do what The Lord Jesus commissioned them to do by sharing the Gospel, shows that Eckstein is in this for personal glory.
Evidence that Israel well provides for her own is in what follows, for it says it all. Devorah Ganani runs Eckstein’s IFCJ office in Israel. With so much money coming in to Eckstein for his aid to northern Israeli border communities…
Ganani has to find worthy causes; she favors grassroots projects where her organization’s [IFCJ] participation will be noticeable. Today’s recipients answered an ad in local newspapers. One firm condition: Beneficiaries had to agree to put up plaques detailing Fellowship Contributions (“Theology Be Damned” by Netty C. Gross. The Jerusalem Report.Com, January 11, 2001).
My Lord! For one to have to find worthy causes by running newspaper ads proves that Israel’s Social Services are far above average in taking care of Jewish people without money swindled from Christians by Rabbi Eckstein. The man, Eckstein, has tricked you people, and continues to do so until YOU put a stop to it.
Eckstein And The Scriptures And The Great Commission
And I [God] will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee [Abram] shall all families of the earth be blessed (Genesis 12:3).
Rabbi Eckstein says this about the above Scripture and the Born Again Christian”
They seek to bless the Jewish people because of what it says in Bereshit, Chapter 12 Verse 3….They take that very seriously (“Rabbi of the Evangelists.” Jerusalem Post online, by Sam Orbaum, February 6, 2000).
You Born Again Christians and Eckstein side-kick Christian leaders, you bought into this while at the same time selling-out Jesus at the urging of Rabbi Eckstein, the Orthodox Jew who supposedly knows more about what Jesus said than you do. Yes, Eckstein the unequally yoked Orthodox Jew counseled you on how to fulfill the Great Commission to the Jews without using the name Jesus, Yeshua, their Messiah. Shame on you Jerry Falwell « Pat Robertson « Pat Boone « Chuck Colson « Jack Hayford « Gary Bauer « John Hagee « Bill Bright, to name a few. Why have you allowed Rabbi Eckstein to bamboozle Christians into thinking they’re being blessed by yearly sending millions of dollars to him only if they vow to not use that name JESUS? There is something terribly wrong with that picture! Apostasy is what it is! Look at what else the unsaved Rabbi has to say:
I have provided ways in which they [Born Again Christians] can fulfill the Great Commission [Matthew 28:19-20] by helping the Jewish people by blessing them. They can express their love for Israel, their solidarity with the Jews….but not by preaching Jesus. They’re not saying the word ‘Jesus.’
Look at what all Rabbi Eckstein can do for the Born Again Christians! Rabbi Eckstein is Satan incarnate attempting to prevail against the Church of Jesus Christ. Eckstein, the “shrewdest of shrewd,” convinced you, the foolable – gullible Born Again Christian, to believe that you are fulfilling the Great Commission of Jesus Christ while not using the name of Jesus. The Great Commission says:
Go ye therefore, and teach all nations [including Jews], baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always even unto the end of the world (Matthew 28:19-20).
That’s the Great Commission that should be carried right along with your dollars to Russian and Israeli Jews. As Christians, all of us are obligated to evangelize the Jews whether they receive Jesus or not. The shoe is now on the foot of Christians (Christians-Greek-New Testament) and we must all carry out the Great Commission as Christ set down, not as Rabbi Eckstein set down. When it was on the Jews’ foot (Jews-Hebrew-Old Testament) to take God’s Word to the nations, they failed – they failed because they fell into sin and rejected Messiah Jesus. (At this very moment the Jewish Talmud makes it a sin for a Jew to share God’s Word with a non-Jew.)
Eckstein’s Ground Rules Supersede Jesus’ Word
Oh… is the Rabbi clever and scheming! Rabbi Eckstein’s ground rules for Christian organizations and churches making contributions to his organization besmirches Christianity, and the participating Christians have no qualms of conscience about not converting Jews. Eckstein tells Christians:
Your job is to share the gospel of Jesus with the world [excluding Jews]. But only the Holy Spirit can work on the individual. And you can’t force the Holy Spirit [to work of Jews]. “Theology Be Damned” by Netty C. Gross. The Jerusalem Report.Com, January 11, 2001.)
Now, that is not news to you. You know that the Holy Spirit is the One who convicts. Therefore, how can the Holy Spirit convict a Jewish soul if the Gospel of Jesus Christ isn’t presented to that soul? Eckstein is cleaver and he’s using the New Testament teachings, which he doesn’t even believe and he hates, to play with your mind. He’s playing with your minds because if you truly moved in the Spirit, your hearts would be tugged at letting you know that there is something not right with this man and his organization. You know that your job is to share the Gospel and that the Holy Spirit convicts, but Eckstein is convincingly telling you to share it with all others in the world but say nothing of Jesus to the Jewish people or else you might miss out on your blessing. Eckstein is bringing you to believe him, not Jesus, when he says that you are fulfilling the Gospel or the Great Commission by handing over the mullah to him to hand it over to the Jews without them ever hearing the curse word, Jesus. (Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and oh how they need Him to make their lives complete.)
In Rabbi Eckstein’s “Self-Sufficiency Program” he wants Christians to send $50 to help a Jewish immigrant living in Jerusalem. This will help for one month. Should you send a donation, you will receive a proclamation from Jerusalem, signed by the mayor or Jerusalem and Rabbi Eckstein, recognizing you as a righteous friend of Jerusalem. Also in this infomercial Eckstein says something about “your Lord” (Jesus) having been a Jew and walked in the city of Jerusalem created a special bonding between Christians and Jews which is unconcealed cheap spiritual psychology at work. The viewers are then taken to the Valley of the Cross, supposedly where the wood for Jesus’ cross was taken from and now homeless people sleep there. This informercial goes on with more cheap spiritual mind games. Talking about pulling the wool over somebody’s eyes – Rabbi Eckstein is doing that to Born Again Christians, and they are accepting.
Talking about pulling the wool over Christians’ eyes – the infomercial “Isaiah 58” has heavily used Christian music: “Sing Hallelujah To The Lord,” “He’s The Mighty God Of Israel,” “Let My People Go,” and a few more that Christians would immediately recognize and be moved by them emotionally. If it’s about helping Jews, why not use Jewish music instead of Christian music and New Testament Scriptures about “feeding the hungry and clothing the naked” if the whole thing is proper? No, because he is playing on the emotions of Born Again Christians with sincere hearts, and that is dirty. To be quite honest, none of those people in the film looked as though they had missed three meals a day – not a one. They are looked rotund.
Here is another example of pulling the wool over Christians’ eyes – the infomercial “On Wings Of Eagles” there too is lots of Christian music – slow and emotion-rising music. On IFCJ’s web site it is written to the Christians, rather Gentiles as the Rabbi “E” calls them:
See, I have engraved you on the palms of my hands;…Lift up your eyes and look around; all your sons gather and come to you… .This is what the Sovereign Lord says, ‘See, I will beckon, to the Gentiles – they will bring your sons in their arms and carry your daughters on their shoulders (Isaiah 49:16-22).
The New Exodus of Jews from the ‘land of the North’ is one of the great miracles of all time. How awesome that in thousands of instances, these Jews are being rescued by ‘Gentiles’ – Christians who make possible the freedom flights through On Wings of Eagles! Through the generous acts of thousands of Christians, Jews are being saved, biblical prophecy is being fulfilled and the prophesied second Exodus is underway.
The prophesied second Exodus is not underway, Rabbi “E.” Saints, if the Russian Jews flee during a time of safety, how on God’s green earth will God get the glory in this? He won’t! Not that way. For the Jews to “flee during a time of safety,” how will God carry out His Word so that it doesn’t return to Him void or fall to the ground? Think on that! God will cowardly have to draw in His “outstretched arm,” and that will never be.
When God brought Israel out of Egypt He got the glory through the workings of
…signs, and with wonders, and with a strong hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with great terror (Jeremiah 32:21).
Why so? It wasn’t like that when God brought His people out of the Babylonian bondage? The answer is that because of the grave persecution and injustices the Hebrew people suffered in Egypt, including their lack of freedom to go when they wanted to, God had to show His hand as The God of all creation. The old Soviet Union notably persecuted the Jews, sealed them in without freedom to go when they so desired, and afflicted them with many injustices. Today, Russia and her former empire nations are yet persecuting the remaining Jews. Anti-Semitism is even increasing. With that having gone on and continuing, God alone is going to have to get the glory for bringing the Russian Jews out and not the Rabbi Eckstein’s $350 way of doing it. Remember His Word:
Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be said, The Lord liveth, that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; But, The Lord liveth, that brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north [Russia and company], and from all the lands whither he had driven them: and I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their fathers (Jeremiah 16:14-15).
God said Himself that when the time comes for the Jews to come out of Russia and it will not be by a $350 airline ticket donated by Christians and IFCJ for them to “flee during a time of safety,” but it will be by His mighty outstretched arm. Remember the outstretched arm in Egypt? The outstretched arm over Russia will in no wise be compared to what went on with Pharaoh and the Egyptians. Remember,
And I will bring you out from the people, and will gather you out of the countries wherein ye are scattered, with a mighty hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with fury poured out (Ezekiel 20:34).
Rabbi Eckstein doesn’t want to thwart Satan’s plans for the Jews in Russia, but he wants to thwart God’s plans just for he and his organization to gain respect as a reputable Jewish agency, oh… money is the hidden agenda. “Ain’t that just like the Devil”? Yes, the Devil – attempting to prevail against the true Church of Jesus Christ through a deceitful Orthodox Jewish interpretation of the Great Commission.
Interjection: What about Rabbi Eckstein’s very, very bad attempt to squeeze out tears on a couple of those informercials? He should have consulted Tammy Faye and Jan Crouch on “how to shed the perfect fake tear.”
As an Orthodox Jew, Rabbi Eckstein accepts the traditional view of God as in The Bible, and he accepts the Talmud and Midrash. He doesn’t believe the New Testament is God’s Word, but yet, in a masterful way, he uses it to reel you into the trap he has set for you. This man is a con artist and sinfully, he’s using God’s Word as the bait. He thinks nothing of doing that because he’s operating against you – a goyim/Gentile/heathen, and the Talmud gives that kind of sinful act a blessing – it’s okay. Rabbi Eckstein disregards the New Testament worthy of his attention except for use to sucker-in Christians to his scheme of taking your money to bring him glory in the Jewish world, while preventing you from fulfilling the Great Commission in the lives of Jewish people.
Interjection: The only definition for the word Gentile is heathen, and to be called a Gentile is an insult. The definition of Gentile has not changed regardless of the many meanings Webster’s Dictionary has listed. It is still a heathen or one who does not believe in God, and it’s an insult because you are not a heathen but a Believer in God Almighty and you are His child. That’s why there is no such thing as a “Gentile Christian.”
My dear Born Again Christian brothers and sisters, the poisonous pills of Satan are coated with sugar to don’t be suckered in by Rabbi Eckstein’s sugarcoated words of wanting to see Jews change their stereotypes about Christians. He could care less, and you ought to care even less what Jews or anyone else thinks about you. Don’t chew Eckstein’s sugarcoated “Seven Ways To Be A Blessing To Israel” whereby he says to you, …we want to do everything we can to encourage and strengthen you in your desire to be a blessing to Israel and the Jewish people. Stop digesting Eckstein’s sugarcoated words about him respecting the fact that Matthew 28:19-20 (the Great Commission) is non-negotiable in the lives of Born Again Christians and that “to surrender it would be to surrender their spiritual identity.” He could care less about your spiritual identity. Remember, THE TALMUD. To prove that he could care less, the “shrewdest of shrewd,” Rabbi Eckstein, devised something that the Christians would agree to while at the same time cease sharing the Christian faith with Jews. While us TRUE CHRISTIANS are to love the Jewish people with all our heart and “stand with” them even when the rest of the world hates them, we are to be as wise as serpents to schemes such as Rabbi Eckstein’s and not support such.
Moishe Rosen of Jews For Jesus said Rabbi Eckstein’s …intention has been to develop relationships with committed Christians – not merely to raise funds for Israel, but to undermine evangelistic efforts directed toward Jewish people. There you have it, coming from the mouth of a Born Again Jew. It is so true because Rabbi Eckstein refuses to work with organizations that target Jews for conversion. He split with the Southern Baptist Convention after they publicly announced they were targeting Jewish conversion in six cities. Eckstein tried to make his case against that by saying I wholeheartedly support the right of Christians – or members of any other faith – to share their beliefs as they feel called. However, I consider such targeted evangelism…to be a misguided and even tragic mistake in Jewish-Christian relations… (“Witnessing vs. Proselytizing” by Rabbi Yechiel Eckstein. Christianity today online, Week of November 29, 1999). That was Eckstein’s cheap psychology at work once again. If he is working with you, then you have given in to the principles of Rabbi Eckstein with regard to not using the name of Jesus to Jews. You are doing “Eckstein The Manipulator’s” interpretation of what the Great Commission means, not the interpretation of the Holy Spirit, and that’s just what Satan wants. You know what, thanks to you it’s working.
Born Again Christians, Rabbi Eckstein is a “Smooth Operator” who has earned the grade of “A+ and some” for successfully accomplishing the scheme of (1) getting your mullah, and (2) keeping you from proselytizing the Jewish people. The Jews need Jesus Christ just like you obviously do being that you can’t see through Rabbi Eckstein. When you commit to not witnessing to Jews, you are allowing “spiritual holocaust” in the life of every unsaved Jew.
Pray for the Jews!
Love and support the Jews in their struggles!
Love Israel with all your heart!
Stand for an undivided Jerusalem as the capital of Israel!
don’t let Rabbi Eckstein’s schemes get you in trouble with Almighty God.
Pastors and supporters of Israel you did the right thing to support Israel, this is just to show you that in our Independent Baptist we have these missionaries so called Jews just because they wont eat a ham sandwich and grow a beard, we are suckers thinking your backing Jacob but instead your supporting Esau, just because they try to run in a fundamental crowd and have a bagel in their hand don’t mean they are for real.
Every Church I go to I preach that we ought to support Israel but not these flim flam men.
I betcha if you give so many of these so called converted Jew missionaries a blood test I will bet they will have sickle cell.
I have had a gut full of these ripoffs hurting the real missionaries.
Hey the real missionaries ain’t got time for every campmeeting an Revival to raise money, they think just cause they are circumcised? It qualifies me to be a missionary to the Jews.